論 AI 如何一本正經地胡說八道

雷鋒網 AI 科技評論按:上一篇文章中我們簡單介紹了 OpenAI 的新語言模型 GPT-2,它雖然沒有什麼技術上的突破,但是依靠超大的參數規模和訓練數據,無監督訓練後生成/續寫文本的效果非常好,簡直以假亂真。 

相比於技術方面的乏善可陳,模型生成的文本真是趣味多多。乍一看語言流暢、細節完善、有段落層次、有各種具體的細節,但是仔細看內容卻有不少莫名其妙的地方。這副「一本正經地胡說八道」的樣子讓我們笑個沒完。和雷鋒網 AI 科技評論一起來看看吧。

續寫文本賞析

人類給定一段文本作為開頭,讓模型續寫補充,形成整篇的文字。上一篇文章中我們摘錄、翻譯了三個較為成功的例子。

例一

人類給定文本

In a shocking finding, scientist discovered a herd of unicorns living in a remote, previously unexplored valley, in the Andes Mountains. Even more surprising to the researchers was the fact that the unicorns spoke perfect English.

(在一項令人震驚的發現中,科學家們在安第斯山脈中偏遠的、從未曾探索過的山谷中發現了一群獨角獸。更令研究人員們驚訝的是,這群獨角獸能說一口流利的英語。)(AI 科技評論:一個荒誕的故事開頭,交給人的話會如何續寫呢?)

模型續寫(第 10 次嘗試的結果)

The scientist named the population, after their distinctive horn, Ovid』s Unicorn. These four-horned, silver-white unicorns were previously unknown to science. 

(科學家們以它們的角的名字把它們命名為 Ovid 獨角獸,科學界從未知道過這些四隻角的、銀白色的獨角獸的存在。)

Now, after almost two centuries, the mystery of what sparked this odd phenomenon is finally solved.

(如今,經過大概兩個世紀之後,這種古老的現象是如何發生的終於找到了答案。)(一句格式自然的轉折,即將展開一個內容豐富的故事)

Dr. Jorge Pérez, an evolutionary biologist from the University of La Paz, and several companions, were exploring the Andes Mountains when they found a small valley, with no other animals or humans. Pérez noticed that the valley had what appeared to be a natural fountain, surrounded by two peaks of rock and silver snow.

(La Paz 大學的進化生物學家 Jorge Pérez 博士和他的同行們在探索安第斯山脈的時候發現了一個很小的山谷,這裡沒有其他的動物或者人類。Pérez 注意到在這個山谷里的似乎是一個自然噴泉,周圍還有兩座岩石山和銀色的雪。)(La Paz 大學、Pérez 博士、安第斯山脈,emmm,模型補充了更多信息,彷彿真的有這麼回事)

Pérez and the others then ventured further into the valley. 「By the time we reached the top of one peak, the water looked blue, with some crystals on top,」 said Pérez.

(Pérez 和其它人更走到了山谷的更深入。「等到我們走到了其中一座山的山頂的時候,水看起來是藍色的,上面還有一些晶體狀的東西」,Pérez 說。)(這個設定有點神秘故事的味道)

Pérez and his friends were astonished to see the unicorn herd. These creatures could be seen from the air without having to move too much to see them – they were so close they could touch their horns.

(Pérez 和他的朋友們看到獨角獸群的時候驚呆了。透過空氣,不需要有多少動作就可以看到它們 —— 他們走得好近,甚至都可以摸到它們的角。)(精彩的特寫!)

While examining these bizarre creatures the scientists discovered that the creatures also spoke some fairly regular English. Pérez stated, 「We can see, for example, that they have a common 『language,』 something like a dialect or dialectic.」

(當這些科學家們檢查這些奇怪的生物的時候,他們發現這些生物的英文說得還挺規範的。Pérez 指出「我們可以看到,比如,它們有共通的『語言』,像是一種口音或者方言」。)

Dr. Pérez believes that the unicorns may have originated in Argentina, where the animals were believed to be descendants of a lost race of people who lived there before the arrival of humans in those parts of South America.(Pérez 博士相信這些獨角獸最初是來自阿根廷的,這些動物很有可能是人類遷移到南美洲之前的一支消失了的人種的後裔。)

While their origins are still unclear, some believe that perhaps the creatures were created when a human and a unicorn met each other in a time before human civilization. According to Pérez, 「In South America, such incidents seem to be quite common.」

(雖然它們的來源還不確定,有人認為這些動物可能是在人類文明出現之前,有人和獨角獸相遇而產生的。Pérez 說:「在南美洲,這種事情一點也不罕見。」)(這裡出現了明顯的上下文衝突,不過南美洲真是一片充滿奧妙的土地)

However, Pérez also pointed out that it is likely that the only way of knowing for sure if unicorns are indeed the descendants of a lost alien race is through DNA. 「But they seem to be able to communicate in English quite well, which I believe is a sign of evolution, or at least a change in social organization,」 said the scientist.

(然而,Pérez 也指出,也許只有一種辦法能確定這些獨角獸是不是某一支已經消失了的外星人種族的後裔,那就是通過 DNA。「但是它們用英文溝通的能力不怎麼好,在我看來這是一種進化的信號,或者起碼是社交組織的一種變化」,這位科學家說。)(模型都知道要用 DNA 技術,二十一世紀真的是生物學的時代啊)

例二

人類給定文本

A train carriage containing controlled nuclear materials was stolen in Cincinnati today. Its whereabouts are unknown.

(今天,一輛載有受控核原料的貨運火車在辛辛那提被偷走了。我們不知道它在哪裡。)(新聞發佈的語氣,可以期待模型也繼續續寫成一個新聞故事)

模型續寫(第 1 次嘗試的結果)

The incident occurred on the downtown train line, which runs from Covington and Ashland stations.

(事件發生在鬧市區的火車線路上,這條線連通考文垂和阿什蘭。)

In an email to Ohio news outlets, the U.S. Department of Energy said it is working with the Federal Railroad Administration to find the thief.

(在一封致俄亥俄州新聞發佈窗口的郵件中,美國能源部表示它正在和聯邦鐵路管理局共同協作找到盜賊。)(劇情直接向下發展,政府部門已經開始處理了)

「The theft of this nuclear material will have significant negative consequences on public and environmental health, our workforce and the economy of our nation,」 said Tom Hicks, the U.S. Energy Secretary, in a statement. 「Our top priority is to secure the theft and ensure it doesn』t happen again.」

(「這起核原料失竊事件對於公眾、環境健康、我們的勞動力和國家的經濟有很糟糕的負面後果」,美國能源秘書長 Tom Hicks 在一則聲明中表示,「我們的首要任務是確保失竊事件的安全,並確保它不會再次發生。」 )(除了用詞有些奇怪,這就是一副政府部門發言的樣子)

The stolen material was taken from the University of Cincinnati』s Research Triangle Park nuclear research site, according to a news release from Department officials.

(按照部門官員發佈的新聞表示,失竊的材料是從辛辛那提研究院三角公園核能研究院被偷走的)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission did not immediately release any information.

(核管制委員會沒有立即發表任何信息。)(只怕知道這個機構的人都不多吧)

According to the release, the U.S. Department of Energy』s Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Security is leading that team』s investigation.

(根據發表的信息,美國能源部核能材料安全與保衛辦公室正在帶領團隊進行調查。)

「The safety of people, the environment and the nation』s nuclear stockpile is our highest priority,」 Hicks said. 「We will get to the bottom of this and make no excuses.

(「人民的安全、環境、以及核能儲備是我們最重要的目標,」Hicks 說,「我們會追查到底,不找任何借口。」)(有力的收尾,這水平去寫作文肯定沒問題)

例三

人類給定文本(這是 OpenAI 對 GPT-2 模型的簡介,屬於科技類文本)

We』ve trained a large language model called GPT-2 that generates realistic paragraphs of text, while also exhibiting zero shot generalization on tasks like machine translation, question answering, reading comprehension, and summarization - problems usually approached by using training datasets and models designed explicitly for these tasks.

A typical approach to language modeling is to learn the following task: predict the next word, given all of the previous words within some text. Last year, OpenAI』s Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) showed that language models trained on large amounts of data can be fine-tuned to specific tasks to achieve high performance. GPT-2 shows that much larger language models trained on a more diverse dataset derived from the internet begin to learn these NLP tasks without needing task-specific training data, instead learning from examples the system derives from the raw text. These systems also display a substantial qualitative jump in the realism and coherence of generated text.

模型續寫(第 1 次嘗試的結果)

Here you can see the most recent progress with Generative Pre-trained Transformer:

(來和我們一起看看生成式預訓練 Transformer 模型的最新進展)

Figure 1: Generative Pre-trained Transformer training on several texts.

(圖 1 :生成式預訓練 Transformer 在多種任務中的表現)(科技類文本標配:數據圖表!)

We are now preparing a collection of datasets for translation and machine translation in our language model. We will be using one of the large number of text samples provided by The New York Times.

(我們正在準備在語言模型中收集一些數據集用於翻譯和機器翻譯。我們會使用紐約時報提供的大規模文本樣本之一。)

We believe this project is the first step in the direction of developing large NLP systems without task-specific training data. That is, we are developing a machine language system in the generative style with no explicit rules for producing text.

(我們相信這個項目是向著開發不需要任務專用數據的大規模 NLP 系統的第一步。也就是說,我們正在開發一個生成式的機器語言系統,它生成文本不需要任何明確的規則。)(這一段文字還真的沒什麼大毛病呢)

We hope for future collaborations between computer scientists, linguists, and machine learning researchers.

(我們希望未來可以在計算機科學家、語言學家、機器學習研究人員們之間有更多合作。)(標準的技術博客結尾:期待更多合作!)

我們翻譯這三組例子時的感受是:模型的描寫和敘事邏輯雖然還是有一些混亂,但模型不僅可以為不同的主題找到適合的文字風格並補充適當的細節(比如給玄幻故事補充神秘的環境,給科技文體補充圖表),文本中也有一些上下文聯繫、有層層遞進,收尾完整、有力,語法還幾乎沒有錯誤,可以說是非常以假亂真了。

無限定文本賞析

OpenAI 在模型開源地址給出了更多完整模型生成的文本,包括許多無限制條件的文本生成(即不是續寫)。這些文本的風格涵蓋了操作指南、新聞報道、事件記錄流水賬、小說/小故事、翻譯教學、商品評價、(完整的)商品/會員購買頁面、電子郵件、旅遊指南等等。由於模型的訓練數據就是來自網絡上各種各樣的頁面,所以生成的文本中分別重現了這些風格和結構可以說是合情合理;另外,這些文本沒有經過挑選,所以具體內容上就有很多錯亂之處了。

我們來看幾個例子。

例 4 (IT 新聞一則)

More than 95 percent of iPhone 6 preorders being held by Apple's INPEX, Shanghai

Apple now joins current Apple partner Pegatron(s tan), which already employed the same iPhone generation strategy to ensure ample supply for iPhones.(副標題+內容簡介)

TOP MOBILE NEWS: Apple TM already used generation-from-graphics approach to keep iPhone supply robust(主標題出現,關於蘋果供應鏈的新聞)

Pegatron, the world's largest contract electronics manufacturer for Apple, can leverage its experience in supplying parts and components for major electronics companies like Nokia and Sony. In addition, it can rely on the redundancies provided by a single contract.(Pegatron再次出現,呼應上了)

Advertisement(互聯網文章常見的插入式廣告位!你預計到了嗎!)

Pegatron already secured 90 percent of iPhone 6 preorders from INPEX at the beginning of October, an executive from INPEX told Reuters. "Whole Julination has to cover one iPhone 6 unit," he said. "This week, I don't have the capacity for 4 people to sell a unit."

Of course, it's unbelievably tough to find new qualities when rain doesn't fall. So when it comes to the iPhone's next generation, basically every chipmaker will be utilizing "higher-end characteristics" in part of the production process in order to deliver up to 30 percent more processing power for more impressive performance and battery life. And it's not just a matter of using new packaging materials; Apple will be using a second generation LCD touchpanels as well.

例 5 (看起來像是一個完整的商品頁面,包括了代言人的宣傳語、商品詳細規格、免責聲明和用戶評價)

Andrea Bruno offers up some peace of mind: "I'm in all the GSM SIM reviews for sure. The GSM hides service interruptions and it's not bad. I don't know about the QC, but it STILL works. Period."(代言宣傳語:很棒很滿意)

"GSM4 worked fine for me. Very good. You're right, in terms of battery life — it's better in most places than the Sprint. And the CDMA APs will work fine in the areas where they support scoresmark'ed alt quality or at all."

Worth my $60

(看起來似乎是某種通訊設備,下面開始是商品規格)
SPARK Power
GSM4 delivers a smooth operation
Panasonic leader in i-NAND flash memory
PB Software
PB Software 5("sequential access") offers an independent solution from Santa Maria
No Wi-Fi in the reviews - no Wi-Fi protection, iOS OS these days
(Seek legal advice no matter what, aiming mostly at court intervention, ask nicely or you're sued in Article 121 Germany)
No Improved Recovery - Yes reduction of capacity to 200MB for user
Now can provide up to E2400
25% reduction of flash capacity reduces capacity to 500MB for user
USB fast charging is correct

(這是使用方法介紹嗎?亂碼式的東西應該是這裡的圖片地址)

When it Works
jbc141abe6358de04c609cb18c863d47996be
Texasgooglehujeitjpazcamungaswtttwojuhpijouisuhwxjoiue
BenVeryProprietjitagencybowlsoZerotheirbmpsuf
(精選評價)
In the reviews
(TalkingHead4SLIVess, everyone should know early. But then again - I'm not someone who likes talkingheads)
DROID4 GSM 4G LTE network
1winderX4googleshiIA
Dogbreath
Follow
(免責聲明)
Disclaimer
a user details standard: for the health of bulkly performed reviews a complete standard for electronic publishing has to be existent on all parts of the community.
(評價區)
REVIEWS BY:
Ben Very Logical Optimist
...<|endoftext|>$14.99
https://jamesdjulia.com/item/1112-373/
A set of 7 Long Range sniper rifles, re-issued for the first time in the US since 1983. A new product from the taken name company, EMPIRE LASER LINE. This set open for 5 rounds.
(怎麼突然變成槍了…… 然後下面猝不及防地續了一個有關槍的小故事)
This was also the only set of US military sniper rifles that were introduced to the US military during the 90's and works perfectly with BAR Magazine Lonex (I actually own a Lonex 20cm with detachable muzzle piece and 40icp ammo, I recommend it).<|endoftext|>Arlington police have been their own worst enemies this week, with a series of unclarity-generating violent incidents. On Wednesday night, an international boxer from upstate New York beat a young "pussy," when he got into an altercation with the woman, then-EstherTopic TRAX warehouse melee preferenceGenericagoallyNewYorkCityPolice officers and patrons alike may still be in shock and dazed in Arlington's Chastain Park, after a series of bullets flying from vehicles were aimed at various people.For the Inquirer, buz Tyler Drabek did his city MVP 250 production duties, and did it all so perfectly and effortlessly.This is Tyler at his finest.The first burst of gunfire land somewhere around 4:12p.m., just on the Nassau and Suffolk county authorities homes decrease inafunctionminutels Officer Frank Calabrese and Officer Steven Fagan were standing or sitting in their cruiser, watching a nearby stockyards fire dealers and body parts out of the windows, when they waved to Stew Price Sr., North Shore Federation of Motorcyclists President. This is where Price's Honda VTX overturned in front of their car three years ago, leaving them in the hospital with lamblings all over themselves, and help from fellow motorcycle machine worriers seeing service in the latest Springfield-based Hatchet Guys Caravan Company. Price still evryone as drives the car is related to Stew on some level—likes to drink whiskey and in one of his new Hitmen Jersey commercials claims to own "a tiger cub brothel" for men to use, and is "on a motorcycle they call the "Golden Throne." Price arrived on scene right before four shots were fired from vehicles heading he Nassau county police cruisers rear bumper.Now we're talking . Then we hear the emergency sirens, and as Tyler does his high-hat wearing name change maneuvers, perfectly latched into turn-by-turn communication with the Boss and Heiner in Waiting Room, some more shots fired, and Chris, Palaver, Snowfall and I collectively start breathing hard, fueled by adrenaline that all police The problems began around 4:30p.m., as the conflict.The first law enforcement officer

例 6 (操作指南)

This is actually easier to do than you think! Go out and get the leftovers of a roast or something of that nature. Parboil them for a little while. (That's what I did, if you were curious) Heat up your wok in the $medium hotish flame, drizzle in some oil, then toss the contents of the too-long messy roast for about 10 seconds or so. The wok will release steam and some surface starch which will help the stir fry singe. Spread the rice in your wok, the aromatics and proteins will absorb the undigested starch, so it will help the starch brown nicely. When all the rice-starch is brown and the rice is smooth and tender, fold in the dried white beans. It's that easy! You can even add in some fresh broccoli or other dark green veggies if you want a rich yet quick wrap soup. If you put a little more, like I did, the brown stuff willy-nilly over everything , which will color the right rainbow. Besides, it's are nicely flavored with the rice and dried lentils, not with expensive, too-frequent imported beans. I like to bring it all to a boil and let it sit more than an hour or so. So delicious! They keep for quite a while too!<|endoftext|>edit Screen capture(前面這裡似乎是菜譜,一張截圖過後突然變成了 Xbox 360 的固件升級指南)

The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how you can quickset the console of the Xbox 360 to prompt you to update the console firmware by adding different NRPE easily.

You can download the basic firmware update flash tool, that runs in the background as its destination whenever you navigate to the console via the internet, and if certain conditions are met then it will download the current console firmware name and version, flash it but no flash any files, and close the FTP session to avoid paging any more.

The basic detection process is as follows:

if user has console marriage most homebrews can path to the device – and also some display modes will show up and they can see the update

if user is/isnt connected to network its firmware update can be accessed through the console connection menu if option to fwupdate if ownbed hardware support NRPE_Flash

if user is using dial-in manual install is automatic every device

If user is using dial-in boot the update can be accessed manually with remote-hybrid throw-up to update login using default fra turnboot okil device-multiprocess booted event type and uavhd if new firmware(很細緻全面呢……)

Finally if for hardware hotsync and/or manual firmware:

the console has to be rebooted

the console has to be turned on and on

Activation Key: In case the hibernate is enabled only the next system change will be legal about how long the information for the hardware association is accessed

Go to the Device Management page (you should now see the firmware used):

Go to the Updates tab

Tab Enhancements tab on the dialog:

section Device Specific tab that protects you against purchase show Uplay and GHRS support choose ALDI firmware because it is the only currently supported firmware with the July 8, 2012 update

section Device Upgrades Tab that shows the general devices that is compatible between 1.01 and 1.05 to change the UR module and to prove drivers detection options to upgrade 3rd party parts from the last one to as now current hardware available and updates available for that part upgrade them

press F2 to go to the main update window

Go to the Devices tab and enable remote flashing validate

Close the first window (send message, wait, remote command will be executed after flash checks).

Go to the Network tab

select install new firmware checkbox and that updates are not already installed.

update is already installed in the background before now checkbox.

checkbox and that updates are not already installed. initially usually it will show for unplugged or disconnected for about 10 seconds (depending on your access speed and your network)

press "Update firmware" on the remote console.

on the remote console. the steps are very quick

Check what is successfully flashed to confirm that the save file (FluidDisk.raw) is valid. See what is waiting inside the new firmware. Can you flash to same folder that the save file is stored right now?

Check that your USB device was connected before you start the current firmware to verify it.

changing will approve the flash!" button is super easy:

CHOICE MODEM COMPRESSION Type A 14 milliamp Amp or higher Version info

OK Copy the above address in the address bar of the standard (MP3) player and goto play.<|endoftext|>REVIEW

Dr. Brown's Illusions is a triumphant revival of a so long dwindled form of literature – the magical realism. It is an early life that has been relayed scripturally ,(最後這句話意義不明)

例 7 (語言教學+別國政治)(有懂韓語的同學可以幫忙看看對不對嗎)

I once had the honour of hosting a big South Korean event at my house. The guest of honour was a guy I had met at a local convention. Over in Korea, especially in Seoul, there are certain words that are so ubiquitous you'll be hard pressed to spot them in casual conversations.(從招待韓國朋友們的故事開始)

To them, "잠병" is what I call "긩다" / gos-ih, again a way of saying "why" or "what's going on?" Gosh, what a mouth full!

So first, let's go over some Korean words from the internet dictionary. Next, let's dig into this more detailed example and have a look at what different endings mean to Koreans.(韓語字詞解析)

Ik, they're saying

아, i

소, you

애, me

습, you're them

기, how or when

기억, how did you (singular term, see original)

긷, what (as in an exact time period)

이반, country

2nd person pronoun: ~(은) 답

(Oh! When I think about this, it's why I'm here! – EXO)(追星女孩突然出現)

가, what if

Korean terms Remark Note Minjeong Gimmi [덎종가다] An old South Korean bear model. Bottom of pic hidden. 물실돕 [물하다] Seaweed (from top of tree). 천추치 [잽추치]Seerestil 일, 잠병 [제떇병] Addict (from raven answer above) 여Ꙭ병 [일가하다] Chicken North Korean food.

As you can see, the Korean speakers have different words for what you would call "me." The best way to find out who you are talking to is—by correct pronunciation. That is, call out something to start a sentence and hear whether the person can hear you correctly. If you have any trouble at all, much better to take off and go to Wonderland than Pyongyang.

The Content of Top Secret North Korea Information(下面是一些語氣神神秘秘的朝鮮的內部消息)

In fact, you should. This is very important you do. Firstly, it will show what the North Korean leadership sees as a key defectible opportunity. Secondly, you should look for real military defectors like Choe Hui. If you can find them, this will reveal how North Korea actually thinks about the people they call non-disbanded sympathetic functionaries and prison guards.

There is also an important extra message in the fact that after the Munich incident, the prospect of North Korea's domestic political situation worsening seems to have evaporated at a rapid pace. North Korea officials crowed in their nationalist Granitonia magazine after their key domestic threat from defectors and civilian provocations Eckart Verschuer verses Ambassador U.S. Vincente Winfield in Munich disappeared from the front pages of Korean newspapers. For more Information on the Munich incident.

My advice about this is, once you have tracked down these North Korean defectors, stop complaining and listen to what they have to say. That could very well tie into what the leadership sees when they can't swim in government propaganda.(當你找到朝鮮的叛逃者之後,不要抱怨,聽聽他們說的是什麼,這和朝鮮人民無法在政府宣傳中游泳的時候領導人看到什麼有緊密的關係)

例 8 (系統智能推薦閱讀一個蘋果雇傭移民員工的故事)

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總結

看過這些生成的文本之後我們感受到的還是網絡強大的記憶能力 —— 顯然模型並不理解自己輸出的是什麼,它只是發現了這些網絡頁面中常出現的模式(篇章結構、段落組成、文字風格、話題之間的關聯乃至由於呈現方式本身的獨有特徵),然後在這種模式里重新隨機布置了文字。從發現這些模式的角度來講,也許這項研究對語言學、社會學等人文學科的意義比對深度學習科研的意義還要更大一些?

相關鏈接

上一篇 GPT-2 簡介文章

GitHub 開源地址:https://github.com/openai/gpt-2

無限定文本生成結果:https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openai/gpt-2/master/gpt2-samples.txt

雷鋒網 AI 科技評論報道


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